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Alpine Environment

The Swiss Alps are beautiful, but are they biodiverse?

The demands of a growing human population often clash with the needs of nature, a fact that regularly sparks political debate in Switzerland.

This content was published on January 20, 2022 - 10:55
Luigi Olivadoti (illustration)

Nearly half of the country’s 230 habitat types are threatened, in particular moors, farmland and freshwater ecosystems. Problems with these living spaces put pressure on their wild residents, and about a third of the 45,000 species of flora and fauna in Switzerland are threatened. Another issue is the loss of genetic diversity, which plants and animals need in order to resist disease and adapt to a changing climate.

Switzerland and its Alps are growing warmer. Plants that previously couldn’t survive above certain altitudes are creeping higher up the mountains and competing with Alpine flora for space and nutrients. This in turn affects the species that depend on them for food and shelter.

At the same time, many mountain farmers with herds of sheep want to eliminate predators like wolves and lynx – two species already driven to local extinction in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Wolves, numbering about 150, have been finding their way back to Switzerland. We explain their journey and give a short history of Swiss human-wildlife conflict in this original animated video.

Government efforts to bring the lynx back have been successful, and now there are about 250 individual animals. This report from Swiss public television, SRF, has more.

People in Switzerland regularly take action to boost biodiversity. Most recently, environmental groups forced a referendum on parliament’s changes to the hunting law, which would have made it easier to regulate wolves and other protected species.

Upcoming votes include two initiatives calling for changes to the Swiss constitution: one specifically to protect biodiversity and another to halt the spread of built-up areas.

“Diverse landscapes, lively brooks, fertile soil and a rich architecture: Much of what Switzerland stands for has come under massive pressure. But politicians and the authorities are doing very little to safeguard this wealth and our livelihood for the future,” said campaigners such as Pro Natura, BirdLife Switzerland and the Swiss Foundation for Landscape Protection and Development when they handed in the necessary signatures in September 2020. Parliament is currently working on a counter-proposal to the initiative.

In a 2017 reportExternal link, the federal environment office explained that biodiversity was essential because it “produces food, regulates the climate, preserves air and water quality, participates in soil formation and offers human beings a place of recreation and a source of inspiration”.

Indeed, biting into a crisp apple is one of the pleasures of the harvest season. But if there aren’t enough pollinators, the yield of apples and other fruits will be poor. Ironically, efforts to feed people can be part of the problem if there are monocultures, herbicides and pesticides at work. Switzerland’s 50,000 small farmers meet just over half of the national demand for food, if you take imported animal feed into account.

But when it comes to having an array of species, it’s definitely not a case of the more the merrier. Invasive species – those that aren’t native to the region – can pose a threat to local flora and fauna when they compete for living space and nourishment.


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FreemarkerView[template=/jar:id:contentproperty:/Themes/swissinfo/templates/swissinfo-templates.jar/archive!/META-INF/resources/WEB-INF/templates/swissinfo/ch.swissinfo.common.contentbeans/SIMetaArticle.placeholderList.ftl]
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ch.swissinfo.cae.contentbeans.SIFocusMetaImpl$$
com.coremedia.objectserver.dataviews.DataView
com.coremedia.dispatch.HasCustomType
ch.swissinfo.cae.contentbeans.SIFocusMetaImpl
ch.swissinfo.cae.contentbeans.SIFocusMetaBase
ch.swissinfo.common.contentbeans.SIFocusMeta
ch.swissinfo.cae.contentbeans.SIMetaArticleImpl
ch.swissinfo.cae.contentbeans.SIMetaArticleBase
ch.swissinfo.common.contentbeans.SIMetaArticle
ch.swissinfo.cae.contentbeans.SIArticleImpl
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ch.swissinfo.common.contentbeans.SIArticle
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com.coremedia.blueprint.common.contentbeans.CMTeasable
com.coremedia.blueprint.cae.contentbeans.CMHasContextsImpl
com.coremedia.blueprint.cae.contentbeans.CMHasContextsBase
com.coremedia.blueprint.common.contentbeans.CMHasContexts
com.coremedia.blueprint.cae.contentbeans.CMLinkableImpl
com.coremedia.blueprint.cae.contentbeans.CMLinkableBase
com.coremedia.blueprint.common.contentbeans.CMLinkable
com.coremedia.blueprint.common.navigation.Linkable
com.coremedia.blueprint.common.navigation.HasViewTypeName
com.coremedia.blueprint.common.contentbeans.BelowRootNavigation
com.coremedia.blueprint.common.datevalidation.ValidityPeriod
com.coremedia.blueprint.cae.contentbeans.CMLocalizedImpl
com.coremedia.blueprint.cae.contentbeans.CMLocalizedBase
com.coremedia.blueprint.common.contentbeans.CMLocalized
com.coremedia.blueprint.cae.contentbeans.CMObjectImpl
com.coremedia.blueprint.cae.contentbeans.CMObjectBase
com.coremedia.blueprint.common.contentbeans.CMObject
com.coremedia.objectserver.beans.AbstractContentBean
com.coremedia.objectserver.beans.ContentBean
com.coremedia.objectserver.dataviews.AssumesIdentity
java.lang.Object
com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewException: Error rendering view
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.rethrow(ViewUtils.java:344)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.FreemarkerViewEngine$FreemarkerView.render(FreemarkerViewEngine.java:154)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator$ExceptionDecorator.decorate(ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator.java:140)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:344)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:428)
at ch.swissinfo.cae.cdn.RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator$ContentIdCollectorImpl.render(RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator.java:66)
at ch.swissinfo.cae.cdn.RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator$ContentIdCollectorImpl.decorate(RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator.java:59)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:344)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:428)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.lambda$asXmlView$0(ViewUtils.java:400)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:214)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:139)
at ch.swissinfo.cae.richtext.filter.placeholder.PlaceholderRenderer.renderPaceholderList(PlaceholderRenderer.java:42)
at ch.swissinfo.cae.richtext.filter.placeholder.PlaceholderListRichtextFilter.endDocument(PlaceholderListRichtextFilter.java:39)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.endDocument(XMLFilterImpl.java:497)
at com.coremedia.blueprint.cae.richtext.filter.PDivUntanglingFilter.endDocument(PDivUntanglingFilter.java:178)
at ch.swissinfo.cae.richtext.filter.placeholder.PlaceholderRichtextFilter.endDocument(PlaceholderRichtextFilter.java:103)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.endDocument(XMLFilterImpl.java:497)
at com.coremedia.xml.Decoder.decode(Decoder.java:56)
at com.coremedia.xml.MarkupImpl.writeOn(MarkupImpl.java:153)
at com.coremedia.xml.CompressedXMLReader.parse(CompressedXMLReader.java:41)
at com.coremedia.xml.CompressedXMLReader.parse(CompressedXMLReader.java:26)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at java.xml/org.xml.sax.helpers.XMLFilterImpl.parse(XMLFilterImpl.java:357)
at com.coremedia.xml.MarkupImpl.writeOn(MarkupImpl.java:211)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.XmlMarkupView.render(XmlMarkupView.java:36)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator$ExceptionDecorator.decorate(ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator.java:165)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:354)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingXmlView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:407)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:356)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingXmlView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:407)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils$2.render(ViewUtils.java:412)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:184)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:124)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.impl.CAEFreemarkerFacadeImpl.include(CAEFreemarkerFacadeImpl.java:159)
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at freemarker.ext.beans.BeansWrapper.invokeMethod(BeansWrapper.java:1552)
at freemarker.ext.beans.SimpleMethodModel.exec(SimpleMethodModel.java:73)
at freemarker.core.MethodCall._eval(MethodCall.java:62)
at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:101)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.calculateInterpolatedStringOrMarkup(DollarVariable.java:100)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.accept(DollarVariable.java:63)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visitAndTransform(Environment.java:514)
at freemarker.core.CompressedBlock.accept(CompressedBlock.java:42)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacroOrFunctionCommonPart(Environment.java:889)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacro(Environment.java:825)
at freemarker.core.UnifiedCall.accept(UnifiedCall.java:84)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:347)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:353)
at freemarker.core.Environment.process(Environment.java:326)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.FreemarkerViewEngine$FreemarkerView.render(FreemarkerViewEngine.java:150)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator$ExceptionDecorator.decorate(ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator.java:140)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:344)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:428)
at ch.swissinfo.cae.cdn.RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator$ContentIdCollectorImpl.render(RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator.java:66)
at ch.swissinfo.cae.cdn.RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator$ContentIdCollectorImpl.decorate(RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator.java:59)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:344)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:428)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:184)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:124)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.impl.CAEFreemarkerFacadeImpl.include(CAEFreemarkerFacadeImpl.java:159)
at jdk.internal.reflect.GeneratedMethodAccessor330.invoke(Unknown Source)
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at freemarker.ext.beans.BeansWrapper.invokeMethod(BeansWrapper.java:1552)
at freemarker.ext.beans.SimpleMethodModel.exec(SimpleMethodModel.java:73)
at freemarker.core.MethodCall._eval(MethodCall.java:62)
at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:101)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.calculateInterpolatedStringOrMarkup(DollarVariable.java:100)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.accept(DollarVariable.java:63)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visitAndTransform(Environment.java:514)
at freemarker.core.CompressedBlock.accept(CompressedBlock.java:42)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacroOrFunctionCommonPart(Environment.java:889)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacro(Environment.java:825)
at freemarker.core.UnifiedCall.accept(UnifiedCall.java:84)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:347)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:353)
at freemarker.core.Environment.process(Environment.java:326)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.FreemarkerViewEngine$FreemarkerView.render(FreemarkerViewEngine.java:150)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator$ExceptionDecorator.decorate(ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator.java:140)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:344)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:428)
at ch.swissinfo.cae.cdn.RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator$ContentIdCollectorImpl.render(RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator.java:66)
at ch.swissinfo.cae.cdn.RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator$ContentIdCollectorImpl.decorate(RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator.java:59)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:344)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:428)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:184)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:124)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.impl.CAEFreemarkerFacadeImpl.include(CAEFreemarkerFacadeImpl.java:159)
at jdk.internal.reflect.GeneratedMethodAccessor330.invoke(Unknown Source)
at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
at java.base/java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:566)
at freemarker.ext.beans.BeansWrapper.invokeMethod(BeansWrapper.java:1552)
at freemarker.ext.beans.SimpleMethodModel.exec(SimpleMethodModel.java:73)
at freemarker.core.MethodCall._eval(MethodCall.java:62)
at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:101)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.calculateInterpolatedStringOrMarkup(DollarVariable.java:100)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.accept(DollarVariable.java:63)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visitAndTransform(Environment.java:514)
at freemarker.core.CompressedBlock.accept(CompressedBlock.java:42)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacroOrFunctionCommonPart(Environment.java:889)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacro(Environment.java:825)
at freemarker.core.UnifiedCall.accept(UnifiedCall.java:84)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:347)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:353)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:353)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:353)
at freemarker.core.Environment.process(Environment.java:326)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.FreemarkerViewEngine$FreemarkerView.render(FreemarkerViewEngine.java:150)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator$ExceptionDecorator.decorate(ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator.java:140)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:344)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:428)
at ch.swissinfo.cae.cdn.RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator$ContentIdCollectorImpl.render(RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator.java:66)
at ch.swissinfo.cae.cdn.RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator$ContentIdCollectorImpl.decorate(RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator.java:59)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:344)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:428)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:184)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:124)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.impl.CAEFreemarkerFacadeImpl.include(CAEFreemarkerFacadeImpl.java:159)
at jdk.internal.reflect.GeneratedMethodAccessor330.invoke(Unknown Source)
at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
at java.base/java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:566)
at freemarker.ext.beans.BeansWrapper.invokeMethod(BeansWrapper.java:1552)
at freemarker.ext.beans.SimpleMethodModel.exec(SimpleMethodModel.java:73)
at freemarker.core.MethodCall._eval(MethodCall.java:62)
at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:101)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.calculateInterpolatedStringOrMarkup(DollarVariable.java:100)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.accept(DollarVariable.java:63)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visitAndTransform(Environment.java:514)
at freemarker.core.CompressedBlock.accept(CompressedBlock.java:42)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacroOrFunctionCommonPart(Environment.java:889)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacro(Environment.java:825)
at freemarker.core.UnifiedCall.accept(UnifiedCall.java:84)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock$IterationContext.executedNestedContentForCollOrSeqListing(IteratorBlock.java:321)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock$IterationContext.executeNestedContent(IteratorBlock.java:271)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock$IterationContext.accept(IteratorBlock.java:244)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visitIteratorBlock(Environment.java:657)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock.acceptWithResult(IteratorBlock.java:108)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock.accept(IteratorBlock.java:94)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
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at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock$IterationContext.executeNestedContent(IteratorBlock.java:271)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock$IterationContext.accept(IteratorBlock.java:244)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visitIteratorBlock(Environment.java:657)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock.acceptWithResult(IteratorBlock.java:108)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock.accept(IteratorBlock.java:94)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:347)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:353)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:353)
at freemarker.core.Environment.process(Environment.java:326)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.FreemarkerViewEngine$FreemarkerView.render(FreemarkerViewEngine.java:150)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator$ExceptionDecorator.decorate(ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator.java:140)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:344)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:428)
at ch.swissinfo.cae.cdn.RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator$ContentIdCollectorImpl.render(RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator.java:66)
at ch.swissinfo.cae.cdn.RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator$ContentIdCollectorImpl.decorate(RenderedContentIdCollectorDecorator.java:59)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:344)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:428)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:184)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:124)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.impl.CAEFreemarkerFacadeImpl.include(CAEFreemarkerFacadeImpl.java:159)
at jdk.internal.reflect.GeneratedMethodAccessor330.invoke(Unknown Source)
at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
at java.base/java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:566)
at freemarker.ext.beans.BeansWrapper.invokeMethod(BeansWrapper.java:1552)
at freemarker.ext.beans.SimpleMethodModel.exec(SimpleMethodModel.java:73)
at freemarker.core.MethodCall._eval(MethodCall.java:62)
at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:101)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.calculateInterpolatedStringOrMarkup(DollarVariable.java:100)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.accept(DollarVariable.java:63)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visitAndTransform(Environment.java:514)
at freemarker.core.CompressedBlock.accept(CompressedBlock.java:42)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacroOrFunctionCommonPart(Environment.java:889)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacro(Environment.java:825)
at freemarker.core.UnifiedCall.accept(UnifiedCall.java:84)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:347)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:353)
at freemarker.core.Environment.process(Environment.java:326)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.FreemarkerViewEngine$FreemarkerView.render(FreemarkerViewEngine.java:150)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator$ExceptionDecorator.decorate(ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator.java:140)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:344)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:428)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:346)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:428)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:184)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:124)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.impl.CAEFreemarkerFacadeImpl.include(CAEFreemarkerFacadeImpl.java:159)
at jdk.internal.reflect.GeneratedMethodAccessor330.invoke(Unknown Source)
at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
at java.base/java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:566)
at freemarker.ext.beans.BeansWrapper.invokeMethod(BeansWrapper.java:1552)
at freemarker.ext.beans.SimpleMethodModel.exec(SimpleMethodModel.java:73)
at freemarker.core.MethodCall._eval(MethodCall.java:62)
at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:101)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.calculateInterpolatedStringOrMarkup(DollarVariable.java:100)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.accept(DollarVariable.java:63)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visitAndTransform(Environment.java:514)
at freemarker.core.CompressedBlock.accept(CompressedBlock.java:42)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacroOrFunctionCommonPart(Environment.java:889)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacro(Environment.java:825)
at freemarker.core.UnifiedCall.accept(UnifiedCall.java:84)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:347)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:353)
at freemarker.core.Environment.process(Environment.java:326)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.FreemarkerViewEngine$FreemarkerView.render(FreemarkerViewEngine.java:150)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.FreemarkerViewEngine$FreemarkerView.render(FreemarkerViewEngine.java:122)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator$ExceptionDecorator.decorate(ExceptionHandlingViewDecorator.java:113)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:334)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:422)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingBaseView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:336)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewDecoratorBase$DecoratingServletAndTextView.render(ViewDecoratorBase.java:422)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:152)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.ViewUtils.render(ViewUtils.java:109)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.BeanView.renderMergedOutputModel(BeanView.java:63)
at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.AbstractView.render(AbstractView.java:316)
at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.render(DispatcherServlet.java:1373)
at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.processDispatchResult(DispatcherServlet.java:1118)
at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doDispatch(DispatcherServlet.java:1057)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.web.DispatcherServlet.doDispatch(DispatcherServlet.java:69)
at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doService(DispatcherServlet.java:943)
at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.processRequest(FrameworkServlet.java:1006)
at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.doGet(FrameworkServlet.java:898)
at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:626)
at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.service(FrameworkServlet.java:883)
at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:733)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:227)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:53)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at com.coremedia.blueprint.cae.filter.PreviewViewFilter.doFilterInternal(PreviewViewFilter.java:48)
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:119)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at ch.swissinfo.elastic.webservice.filter.RequestParameterFilter.doFilter(RequestParameterFilter.java:44)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at com.coremedia.blueprint.elastic.social.cae.user.UserFilter.doFilter(UserFilter.java:61)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at ch.swissinfo.elastic.webservice.jwt.JwtFilter.doFilter(JwtFilter.java:50)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at com.coremedia.elastic.core.impl.servlet.TenantFilter.doFilter(TenantFilter.java:55)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at com.coremedia.blueprint.cae.filter.SiteFilter.doFilter(SiteFilter.java:54)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:320)
at org.springframework.security.web.access.ExceptionTranslationFilter.doFilter(ExceptionTranslationFilter.java:118)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.session.SessionManagementFilter.doFilter(SessionManagementFilter.java:84)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.AnonymousAuthenticationFilter.doFilter(AnonymousAuthenticationFilter.java:111)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.servletapi.SecurityContextHolderAwareRequestFilter.doFilter(SecurityContextHolderAwareRequestFilter.java:158)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.savedrequest.RequestCacheAwareFilter.doFilter(RequestCacheAwareFilter.java:63)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.logout.LogoutFilter.doFilter(LogoutFilter.java:116)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:113)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:113)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.context.SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.doFilter(SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.java:82)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:113)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy.doFilterInternal(FilterChainProxy.java:215)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:186)
at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.invokeDelegate(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:358)
at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.doFilter(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:271)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at org.springframework.web.filter.RequestContextFilter.doFilterInternal(RequestContextFilter.java:100)
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:119)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at org.springframework.web.filter.FormContentFilter.doFilterInternal(FormContentFilter.java:93)
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:119)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:320)
at org.springframework.security.web.access.ExceptionTranslationFilter.doFilter(ExceptionTranslationFilter.java:118)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.session.SessionManagementFilter.doFilter(SessionManagementFilter.java:137)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.AnonymousAuthenticationFilter.doFilter(AnonymousAuthenticationFilter.java:111)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.servletapi.SecurityContextHolderAwareRequestFilter.doFilter(SecurityContextHolderAwareRequestFilter.java:158)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.savedrequest.RequestCacheAwareFilter.doFilter(RequestCacheAwareFilter.java:63)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.authentication.logout.LogoutFilter.doFilter(LogoutFilter.java:116)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.csrf.CsrfFilter.doFilterInternal(CsrfFilter.java:117)
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:119)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.header.HeaderWriterFilter.doHeadersAfter(HeaderWriterFilter.java:92)
at org.springframework.security.web.header.HeaderWriterFilter.doFilterInternal(HeaderWriterFilter.java:77)
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:119)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.context.SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.doFilter(SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.java:105)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.context.request.async.WebAsyncManagerIntegrationFilter.doFilterInternal(WebAsyncManagerIntegrationFilter.java:56)
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:119)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy$VirtualFilterChain.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:334)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy.doFilterInternal(FilterChainProxy.java:215)
at org.springframework.security.web.FilterChainProxy.doFilter(FilterChainProxy.java:178)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at org.springframework.web.multipart.support.MultipartFilter.doFilterInternal(MultipartFilter.java:125)
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:119)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at org.springframework.session.web.http.SessionRepositoryFilter.doFilterInternal(SessionRepositoryFilter.java:141)
at org.springframework.session.web.http.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:82)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at org.springframework.boot.actuate.metrics.web.servlet.WebMvcMetricsFilter.doFilterInternal(WebMvcMetricsFilter.java:93)
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:119)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at org.springframework.web.filter.CharacterEncodingFilter.doFilterInternal(CharacterEncodingFilter.java:201)
at org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter.doFilter(OncePerRequestFilter.java:119)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at com.coremedia.blueprint.cae.filter.RequestRejectedExceptionFilter.doFilter(RequestRejectedExceptionFilter.java:41)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:189)
at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:162)
at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapperValve.invoke(StandardWrapperValve.java:202)
at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContextValve.invoke(StandardContextValve.java:97)
at org.apache.catalina.authenticator.AuthenticatorBase.invoke(AuthenticatorBase.java:542)
at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.invoke(StandardHostValve.java:143)
at org.apache.catalina.valves.ErrorReportValve.invoke(ErrorReportValve.java:92)
at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngineValve.invoke(StandardEngineValve.java:78)
at org.apache.catalina.valves.AbstractAccessLogValve.invoke(AbstractAccessLogValve.java:687)
at org.apache.catalina.valves.RemoteIpValve.invoke(RemoteIpValve.java:764)
at org.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.service(CoyoteAdapter.java:346)
at org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Processor.service(Http11Processor.java:374)
at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProcessorLight.process(AbstractProcessorLight.java:65)
at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol$ConnectionHandler.process(AbstractProtocol.java:887)
at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.NioEndpoint$SocketProcessor.doRun(NioEndpoint.java:1684)
at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.SocketProcessorBase.run(SocketProcessorBase.java:49)
at java.base/java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1128)
at java.base/java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:628)
at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.TaskThread$WrappingRunnable.run(TaskThread.java:61)
at java.base/java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:829)
Caused by: freemarker.core._MiscTemplateException: When calling function "getLink", required parameter "target" (parameter #1) was specified, but had null/missing value.
----
Tip: If the parameter value expression on the caller side is known to be legally null/missing, you may want to specify a default value for it with the "!" operator, like paramValue!defaultValue.
----
----
FTL stack trace ("~" means nesting-related):
- Failed at: #function getLink(target, view=UNDEFI... [in template "lib/coremedia.com/cae.ftl" in function "getLink" at line 61, column 1]
- Reached through: ${cm.getLink(item.target)!""} [in template "jar:id:contentproperty:/Themes/swissinfo/templates/swissinfo-templates.jar/archive!/META-INF/resources/WEB-INF/templates/swissinfo/ch.swissinfo.common.contentbeans/SIMetaArticle.placeholderList.ftl" at line 12, column 44]
----
at freemarker.core.Macro$Context.checkParamsSetAndApplyDefaults(Macro.java:308)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacroOrFunctionCommonPart(Environment.java:888)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeMacro(Environment.java:825)
at freemarker.core.Environment.invokeFunction(Environment.java:841)
at freemarker.core.MethodCall._eval(MethodCall.java:65)
at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:101)
at freemarker.core.DefaultToExpression._eval(DefaultToExpression.java:96)
at freemarker.core.Expression.eval(Expression.java:101)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.calculateInterpolatedStringOrMarkup(DollarVariable.java:100)
at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.accept(DollarVariable.java:63)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock$IterationContext.executedNestedContentForCollOrSeqListing(IteratorBlock.java:321)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock$IterationContext.executeNestedContent(IteratorBlock.java:271)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock$IterationContext.loopForItemsElement(IteratorBlock.java:257)
at freemarker.core.Items.accept(Items.java:54)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:383)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock$IterationContext.executedNestedContentForCollOrSeqListing(IteratorBlock.java:332)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock$IterationContext.executeNestedContent(IteratorBlock.java:271)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock$IterationContext.accept(IteratorBlock.java:244)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visitIteratorBlock(Environment.java:657)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock.acceptWithResult(IteratorBlock.java:108)
at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock.accept(IteratorBlock.java:94)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:347)
at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:353)
at freemarker.core.Environment.process(Environment.java:326)
at com.coremedia.objectserver.view.freemarker.FreemarkerViewEngine$FreemarkerView.render(FreemarkerViewEngine.java:150)
... 383 more
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